Ancient Indian Wisdom
The Gospel of Lord Krishna:
Among the different avatars of the Lord, the most popular one that has captured the love and affections of men and women, boys and girls, children, scholars and saints, songsters and poets and philosophers, heads of Mutts, Acharyas and laymen, is of Lord Sri Krishna. His ineffable beauty and transcendent loveliness are transfixed in the minds of men and women and ravished their hearts with devotion down the ages. Poets and Philosophers have glorified His message. Besides the author of the Bhaagavata, Surdas, Purandara, Lilasuka, Vedanta Desika, Vadiraja, Bhattatiri, and others have given us admirable pen pictures of the Lord. There is hardly a Hindu who knows not Krishna and His pranks. His personality is many-sided and complex. The greatness of His gospel has crossed the seas and we have the International Krishna Consciousness Organization all over the world. In point of popularity, Krishna takes the pride of palace and ranks as the top deity of India. From the unlettered child and cow-herd to the profound Non-dualist thinkers like Madhusudan Saraswati all have been worshippers of Krishna. The Gopis of Brindavan were infatuated with Lord Krishna. They have given their heart and all to Him unreservedly, and set aside conventional propriety and customary morality. They are admired as the greatest among Lord Krishna’s devotees by Uddhava.
The clay, while being trampled by potter, says to him, “Now you are trampling me, but (mind well) one day will come, you will be trampled by me (you will be merged in me).
The complex personality of Krishna can be viewed, under several heads. The chief vignettes are: the wonderful child Krishna; the great friend and patron; the youthful Brindavan Krishna; the great friend and patron of Pandavas; above all the role of the world Teacher who gave us the Song Celestial, the sermon of the battle-field, the Bhagavad Gita. From the time of his birth which is described as wonderful, everything is wonderful about Him. He is wonderful. He is wonder. When we say that He is wonder, we mean that all other things in the world besides Him are just commonplace in comparison with Him.
Among the various religious classics of the world Gita occupies the pride of place. It is not merely a revered book of the Hindus but a book assessing the relative values of the human aspirations, co-coordinating them all and enabling the individual to attain Moksha. Devotion and service to humanity make up the Saadhana adumbrated by the Gita. It is the key to the vision of God. Devotion and duty are the watchwords of the Gita. Gita is the most widely read and greatly admired book. In the general experience of men, no book is undeservedly forgotten, and none which has no merits is remembered. It is eternal in the sense that it appeals alike to different types of men, e.g. the scholar, the man of affairs, the warrior, and the common man and the house-holder. It appeals alike to our emotions, reason, social sense and love of poetry.
The greatness of Gita is that it is acclaimed alike by the ancient Acharyas and the modern savants. Shankara acclaimed it as precious and sacred as the Ganges water. He continues, “a little of the Gita is enough and there is no need to pore over on the various scriptures. Sri Madhava considered the Gita as “the honey of the parijata tree, Mahabharata”. Classical Sanskrit literature is full of praise for the Gita. In the great prose classic Bana’s Kadambari, it is mentioned that men attained happiness by the recitation of the Gita. The human interest in the Gita emerges when the dialogue proceeds between God incarnate and Arjuna, the close companion and chosen instrument and representative man. The dramatic element disappears, the echoes of the battle-field die away and we have only an interview between God and man, and the chariot of war becomes the lonely cell of meditation and a corner of the battle-field, where the voices of the world are stilled, a fit place for thoughts of the Supreme.
Karmayoga is the core of the Gita teaching and is its basic message. Yoga is a method. It is cognate with the English word, Yoke. Any activity as such is not Karmayoga. It is not instinctive activity, nor is it the reflex process. It is not mechanical activity. It is a deliberate way of living, outlined by the Lord for humanity, to live well here on earth in amity with one’s fellowmen and attain liberation after death. Karmayoga is the medicine administered to Arjuna and through him to humanity. We all are modern Arjunas; we represent Arjuna on the battle-field. We are also facing a great war, and that is a war of life. Act we must, there is no freedom from activity; there is only freedom in activity. It is impossible for any of us to live without activity. Karmayoga is opposed root and branch to several doctrines. We should not be obsessed by the fruits of the activity nor on that account, be slipshod and insufficient in the discharge of our duties. We should dedicate all our actions to the Lord. We should not imagine that we are the sole agents of the act. Karmayoga is opposed to Kaamyakarma, the desire for the fruit of an action. This does not mean that there is no motive for the act, but the motive is not any selfish desires. It is the desire to attain the Lord’s feet.
Gita preaches “Ego renunciation” and not “world renunciation”. It does not want us to give up activities and go to mountain tops and monasteries. One can remain in the world, yet attain liberation by performing his acts as sacrifices. Karmayoga does not want us to do anything special for God. It asks us to dedicate all our acts in loving devotion as Puja to the Lord. When the Gita says that one should not desire fruits, it does not downgrade fore-sight but just asks us to give up selfish desires and work for the Lord’s way of life.
Such a karmayogi knows no mortality; for mortality is a necessary condition through which the finite ego should pass in its dream of continued separativeness! When man has realized his spiritual hood, that man can know thereafter no death, since he becomes a witness of the very process of the decay of the body, which in terms of our every day life we call, ‘death’.
In fact, the whole of involution and evolution in the universe is one continuous Yoga, of the Supreme Spirit. It is in this sense that Shri Krishna as “Yogeshwar” (the Master of Yoga) designates the power of creation of the Lord as “Yoga-maya”. The individual is carried along this eternal stream of Yoga unconsciously till he becomes aware of it. As soon as he is aware of it and of the extent of his part in it, he is called upon to play his role consciously and expedite matters. He then partakes consciously in the creative Yoga, and the joy of co-operation and of being in tune with the Infinite is his.
TAt heart be free from all desires. Transcend all attachments and passions. But be observing all formalities and activities outwardly. Conduct yourself with ease in the world. Reflect well upon the superficial and fleeting nature of all states and situations. At the same time, see clearly the loftiness of the supreme abode of the inmost Self. Linking yourself to the latter through contemplation, conduct your life in the world as though it were a sport.
Be possessed of inward dispassion, but be doing everything outwardly as though with full concern and interest. Be affected and at times even agitated externally, but be composed and cool inside. Sport then in the world with all your duties and activities well attended to. Put on the show of undertakings outside, but be free of all undertakings and concerns internally, at heart. Though a confirmed doer outside, be a real non-doer inside. Being so, live sport fully, in the world. Look as though you are intensely given to rejoicing and delight, to agitation and blaming. Pretend as if you have much concern and interest in all that you do. In this way, take to all activities, of the world, but regarding them as a mere sport. Abandon egoism in full. Make the mind as in deep sleep. Be graceful and radiant like the clear sky and the pure space. Devoid of the least tinge of either sin or virtue, more sport fully in the world, attending to all callings in time and well. Look to everything and all with your benign equal ness. Get freed from the ties of hundreds of desires. Yet dwell upon the effects of Prakriti and its Gunas. Live thus, treating the life and movements in the world, as a long-living sport.
All things in this world depend closely upon each other and are led to decline and destruction. They are like the waves emerging and subsiding in the sea. Here those who are below suddenly rise, and those who are above suddenly fall. This world, which is ever in a state of flux, has the course of a revolving wheel. The celestials are driven to hell and those in hell are raised to heaven. Beings are led from womb to womb, and people from one continent to another. The rich become poor and the indigent turn opulent, all at once. Here all beings are seen to exist, deluded all the while by the fate of rising and falling hundreds of times. Those who are regarded as great and fortunate and those that behave as friends, fall in a few days, to change their fate and be forced to behave differently.
The grass of human life will continue to float upon and be tormented by the roaring waves of the sea of the world until it can spot the restful shore of reason (vichara). A clever gold-smith is one who knows without doubt the nature of gold and its properties. He can distinguish the gold from the ashes. A clever seeker is one who is able to distinguish the inner most Self, from everything else it lays tied to in the body. Knowledge, firm like a rock and free of doubts, alone has the power to take the seeker to his goal. It is the utter ignorance of Truth that makes the mind court delusion and dabbles in it variously. Full knowledge of Truth will make it free of all doubts and oscillations. Ignorance alone leads one to the unreal and hence to destruction.
This ‘amritattwa’ or immortality is never the status of the body. There are many deluded souls who run after quack saints and quaint sages enquiring for some secret process by which they can reach physical immortality! This is an absurd hope and a pleasant contradiction in terms. Body is material, and matter is finite. ‘Immortalizing Mortality’ is an attempt which is literally a ‘continued death’. But the state of Immortality is a state which can be reached and experienced vividly, when the Knots-of-the heart are bombed out of existence. What constitutes the knots of the heart and how we can redeem ourselves from their bondage have been very exhaustively discussed in Vedanta.
To be born a human being with the unique faculties of discrimination and choice is both a great blessing and a terrible curse. This is because exercising one’s choice often creates conflicts. The spiritual text-books, one like Bhagavad Gita can help us deal with our inadequate self. The Gita does not talk of the population explosion or of pollution control, because it is not meant for solving topical problems. It addresses the eternal problem of the inadequate self, because of which we are unable to face topical problems.
Arjuna, too, was faced with the problem of the inadequacy. He was an accomplished warrior--hero and intellectual; yet he was overwhelmed by personal conflict, which left him feeling helpless. Krishna taught him to know the adequate self. Once Arjuna understood himself to be complete, all conflict and sorrow were resolved. This is in fact the theme of the Gita. The essence of the Gita applies to all human beings. It unfolds the solution to the fundamental human problem of conflict and want. Then, like Arjuna, you too will say, “My delusion is no more.”
Walking on water is certainly miraculous, but walking peacefully on earth is an even greater miracle. Changing water to wine is wondrous, but it is more practical to change an unhealthy craving into healthy desires. Raising the dead is clearly a miraculous demonstration of God’s power, but so is healing your daughter’s tummy ache or removing the pain of an earache or; better yet, feeling vibrantly healthy so you don’t get sick in the first place. This power to create practical miracles is now within the reach of every person. In simple terms, what makes this new age unique is that people now have the potential to experience God’s presence and power within their hearts; and as a result, accelerated change is possible. With this shift, humanity is finally capable of bringing “heaven to earth” and creating a world of peace, love, health and prosperity for all. Together we can turn tragedy into triumph.
This disintegration of the Vedic culture has culminated in the present-day decay and disaster wherein the large majority of Hindus are still seeking their spirit through the by-lanes of superstition and false beliefs, through foreign ideologies and western religions, through putrefied institutions and social festivals, while the indolent priest-class, who have the sanction to make a thorough study of the scriptures and practice them exclusively, such as the Brahmins and the Sanyaasins, also came to neglect the Life Divine and the scripture dealing with it. In short, these are days when we can call ourselves a ‘Hindu’ only by the sanction of a long tradition. The entire world of non-Hindus in Hindustan is today waiting to be converted to the true Hinduism!
Again, there are scholars who industriously commit to memory stupendous volumes of spiritual literature and Vedic texts. There are in North India Chaturvedis and Trivedis, which were titles once upon a time given to Braahmins who could repeat out of memory all the four or three Vedaas. Alas, today they have become surnames, the significance of which is unknown even to many them! The Mantra clearly says here that by merely committing to memory a large volume of the literature, no one can attain the perfection indicated therein by the Rishis.
A large black bumble bee was buzzing around a lotus in full bloom. Drawn by the fragrance, the bee sat on the flower. With the setting Sun, the flower’s petals began to close. The bee, intoxicated with the sweet smell, did not budge and got trapped. A similar outcome is possible when, lured by our senses; we experience undue attachment of objects of desire. When one sense-object can lead to such a disastrous outcome for the bee, what will be plight of man who is in the grip of all his five senses? Forced subjugation often proves dangerous; for subjugation can never wipe out desires completely. In subduing desires, we allow them to make our subconscious mind home to unfulfilled desires. This, in turn, leads to mental distractions. They look for an opportune time to surface and burst out in an explosive form.
Living in this world and pursuing worldly goals is no sin. We need to be cautious that the world does not live in us. We know of the caterpillar that gets entangled in its self-woven cocoon. Man too is caught in the clutches of his desires. Just as the caterpillar develops into a butterfly bursting the cocoon, man too can get across the meshes of illusion by the wings of Viveka and Vairagya. Knowledge of the spirit is a prerequisite for arming with these traits. Some may say that they are sinners, polluted by attractions of the world and whom to look to for this realization. Remember, God affords and creates means for our purification and emancipation provided we have the urge within us. This is the prerogative of every individual on earth and not the privilege of a few.
A spiritual master imparts it gratuitously without distinction of caste, creed or color and transcending the physical barriers. He will not embroil you in oft-quoted different paths leading to the Supreme Spirit. He would rather teach the synthesis of all spiritual paths in a comprehensive spirituality embedded in the Bhagvad Gita and Upanishads. Equipped with this spirituality, a man lives oblivious of body and mind consciousness and the associated vasaanas. His individual consciousness with name and form merges into the ocean of universal consciousness.
Realization is not an acquisition but a revelation of the supreme secret of God. It is essentially manifestation of inherent divinity of man. It is the saguna swarupa of supreme Brahman who alone is capable of unfolding it to the spirituality impoverished humanity. He equips us with the worship of the spirit by the spirit.
Scriptures provide perfect testimony to the fact that Divine knowledge alone is the perennial method of self-control, purifying the human mind and living life of true renunciation. Once blessed, it becomes a continuous worship for knower of this Para Vidya—divine knowledge. Indifference and apathy will give place to care and concern for others. Immoral and fallen ways of life will give room to divine endowments. He (the recipient of Brahm Gyan) would see the same consciousness permeating through all.
As there is fire hidden in the wood and it can be produced only through a technique, in the same way, there is divine light, the energizing force as Atman within all which can be seen and known by all when blessed with divine eye. The supreme knowledge consists of instant experience of divine light—cosmic vision, holy nectar—present in plenty in human body, divine music—which goes on incessantly in human body and holy name—primordial vibration—the divine energy chord within all. The triple texts of Vedanta have described God as divine light. We need to know that the Holy name is beyond any language. We should learn the unique technique of listening to inner music which brings forth our divine attributes. It is Holy nectar, amrit which keeps a child in the womb of its mother. On taking birth, the child cries as it gets detached from God. We too are restless as we have forgotten our inherent divinity. We need to learn to live life in god-consciousness so as to lead a contended and blissful life. It is spiritual-master who unties us with our origin—the creator, who is pure Bliss.
Even if we allow senses to consume whatever they wish to, we would never be contended. Lure of senses increases with every additional consumption of a sense-object. It will demand more and more, just like fire demands more and more ghee in a yagnya, fire will never be extinguished if you do not stop pouring the ghee.
The Primordial power is ever at play. She is creating, preserving and destroying in play, as it were……………..the divine mother wants to continue playing with her offsprings, the human beings.
The tragedy of human history is decreasing happiness in the midst of increasing comforts and pleasures. You do not acquire happiness. Your nature is happiness. Bliss is not newly acquired. All that is done is to remove unhappiness. You are the happiness, and there is no becoming happy, says Vedanta. The golden opportunity you are seeking is in yourself. It is not in your environment, it is not in luck or chance, or the help of others; it is in yourself alone. Happiness is easy, but not to be unhappy is a difficult assignment. It simple to be happy, but difficult to be simple. The search for happiness is one of the chief sources of unhappiness. In Vedanta, we find deeper diagnosis of human unhappiness.
If life is lived in its totality, the priest is not needed at all, what is the need of a mediator between you and existence. You are directly in contact with the existence, you are living in existence, breathing in existence, and existence is pulsating in you.
Instead of feeling mentally tired or afflicted, one feels enriched and enlightened by whatever comes his way. He understands that the world is a complement to the Soul, and therefore, his interactions become a beautiful ornament to his life. To be spiritually enlightened is to embody these. One day our descendants will think it incredible that we paid so much attention to things like the amount of melanin in our skin or the shape of our eyes or our gender instead of the unique identities of each of us as complex human beings.
Its’ good to be just plain happy, its’ little better to know that you are happy; but to understand that you are happy and to know why and how and still be happy, be happy in the being and the knowing, well that is beyond happiness, that is bliss.
We all ought to wash our minds completely clean, as the trees are washed by the rain, because they are so heavily laden with the dust of many centuries. It is rightly said that black money drives white money out of circulation. So too, bad habits wipe out good habits from one’s life, once they are encouraged. Even as a farmer removes weeds from the crop he has grown before the weeds mature, so too, bad habits should be weeded out before they grow. In short, the age has failed because man has lost his mastery over his Self. In his preoccupation with conquering nature and subduing her to serve him as a slave, he has ignored his own inward monstrosities. He has developed the faculties of seeing with his fleshy eyes, and in engaging all his abilities insetting right the things he saw. He has left his subtler perceptions undeveloped, and, naturally, like an ownerless garden, the inner world has grown into a jungle.
When we thus enter into the inner world, no true critic of the age can, for a moment, dare compliment the age for even some imaginary goodness! Deep within him he has grown himself to be more barbarous than the barbarians who ever lived in the virgin jungles of the newborn world. He has become unconsciously cruel, selfish and arrogant and often behaves sadistically and hysterically. He is vulgar in his thoughts, low in his values and shattered all around in his individual capacity to tackle his personal life and its problems. And this picture of wailing and mourning parade of death, wherein carrions hoot and feed upon goodness butchered, has become the insignia of our much glorified materialism!
Krishna indicates here the great robber in the “within” of man, which loots away the true joys and thrills of “right living”. Attachments and aversions of the sense organs for their respective sense organs are instinctive, and natural, in every one. The sense objects by themselves are incapable of bringing any wave of sorrow or agitation into the “within”. We get agitated and disturbed not at the level of our sense organs, but in our mind.
The mind goes out and seeks the object, and takes the shape of the object. This is the Theory of Perception in Vedanta. We see the Ganges flowing to the East, and if a villager is asked why it is so, he would say “It is so, because, it had been so even at the time of my father, grand-father and great grandfather”. But if you were to ask the same question to modern student of science, he would say that as East happens to be a low-lying area and as ‘liquids find their own level’, the river flows eastwards. Thus, you see, things can be better explained in their behavior, when we have the true knowledge of them.
The Supreme is supreme indeed in every way. When the mind learns to rely on it exclusively, all corrections, improvements and enrichments are sure to follow. Between the mind and the body, know clearly that the mind is the factor to be touched, purified and embellished. The body is but an instrument for the mind to function and gain its experiences. Thus our focus before, during and after every activity must be truly on the mind. And for this, the safest and the most beneficial position will be to take to a full-fold reliance on the Supreme.
Can we just be off-springs of bodies, or are we the children, the heirs of the eternal soul? The fact that we live for a few decades acting, speaking, thinking and knowing—playing many roles—clearly proves, that we are not the inert, insentient body at all. Our real identity is with the sentient presence in the body, namely the Soul. It is this unnegatable truth that the Vedic thinkers make us instantly aware of, when they call us with the epithet “amrtasya putrah”—children of immortality.
I always call the Hindu mind quite fertile in its imagination and sankalpa. The mind is a trickle from Divinity and so has the same creative power as the Supreme Divinity itself, though in a miniature measure. Human thought, aspiration, and will are quite powerful. Whatever one thinks, that he verily can become. Such is the supreme law.
May the Infinite Effulgence, the Silent Witness of all our actions, bless us all.
The compassionate Lord of the Universe is full in Himself. He does not yearn for any respect or offering made by the innocent. (What happens then to all the worship that people offer to the Lord?). All that but conduces to the devotees’ own welfare, like the adornment put on the face reflected in the mirror! Can a person look at his face and adorn it? He has to have a mirror. But all that he does with the help of the mirror adorns verily his own face. Worship or offering made to the God is exactly like this. God has nothing to gain from it. The beneficiary is the worshipper himself.
Getting stuck is not only a necessary part of spirituality it is a prerequisite to spiritual growth. Our problems in life are insurmountable, they have gone far beyond the reach of money and medicine, so to surmount the handicaps against long life, and Yoga and Vedanta are the powerful tools.
In order to gain a Godly fact or make a profit you have to live every moment vitally aware of what is happening not only outside yourself but also within yourself. But unfortunately, the instruments, our mind and intellect, are left to rust just as the great grandfather’s razor is left in the wall-shelf rusting. For generations past we have been allowing the mind and the intellect, our great instruments of knowing, understanding, feeling and thinking, to lie in neglect. Let us repair them and use of them. It is accomplished by sincere and long Sadhana.
The philosophy of the Gita does not suggest, even in its implications, any kind of running away from the world of sense objects. Krishna’s creed is to live here and now, in the midst of our situations in life, in this very world, and to experience them through our sacred vehicles of the body, mind and intellect. The only insistence is that on all occasions a wise man should be a master of the vehicles and not a helpless victim of these matter envelopments. And secret of the mastery in life is to live free from the tyrannies of attachments and aversions.
Man has learnt how to swim in water like a fish, he has learnt how to fly in the sky like a bird, but alas, he is yet to learn two things; how to live like an ordinary human being and walk peacefully on mother earth.
Times have surely changed. Once synonymous with simplicity and detachment, today’s yogis are living examples of how karma and cash can indeed co-exist! They have struck the perfect balance between material and spiritual. Considering the stake involved, life is one big balancing act for our yoga gurus.
Meditate more than you read. Meditation strengthens one’s resolve. Those who meditate more upon a subject (oneself or one’s self or you in you), receive more courage and strength in fulfilling their intention.
Greatness of Sages and Vedavyasa’s Distinction:
“We need a master and not just a teacher to unlearn what we have learned in Spirituality; as the raft of Knowledge can ferry the worst sinner to safety.”
Bhagvadpada Achraya AdiSankara was inspired champion of Hinduism, far sighted diplomat, vigorous missionary with a colossal work without instruments of propaganda, but with variety of weapons in his resourceful armory and a sole guardian-mighty angel of rishi-culture. Personality scintillating with Truth, heart throbbing with industrious faith & ardent desire, relentlessly logical & the fittest Spiritual General under the heat of his fervent ideas & language almost plastic with flowing rivulets of tilting tuneful songs in the halls of Upanishad commentaries or in temple of Brahma-Sutra expositions or in the amphitheater of Geeta discourses, his pen danced in the melody of Advaita with many pregnant verses. The wonderful garland he offered to adorn Mother Shruti is Atma-Bodha. As it supplies all the requisites of Vedanta & Shankara has made this scientific treatise a chiseled beauty with a distinct cadence & rhythm if its own. The poet in Shankara is let loose in these 68 stanzas. And the examples in it are real hammer-strokes that nail the elusive Vedantic ideals on to the immature comprehension of all early students.
The great Sage Vedavyasa, who enriched the people of this land with the unique Vedic and cultural heritage through his immortal poetic creations. It is undeniable that any society’s cultural luster rests upon the eternal thoughts and literature it is able to evolve and preserve. While all memorials, however strongly built, are bound to perish sooner or later, eternal literature alone has the power to sustain and permeate the society forever. By its invaluable heritage bequeathed by the ancient Upanishads and other scriptural compositions, India illustrates how fruitfully this noble task is accomplished.
Vedas as well as the other epic creations of Sage Vyasa strive to ensure material prosperity and inner spiritual contentment alike for all people. The masterly texts discuss the eternal tenets of dharma (righteousness) and the concept of the Supreme Reality, Brahman that causes and sustains the phenomenal creations. The lofty heritage created by Vyasadeva began to spread and became the warp and woof of the life of teeming millions living in the subcontinent. By the intrinsic strength of individual pursuits, familial heredity and societal as well as devotional dedication of ruler and kings, the powerful legacy unified the people, in the midst of an amazing diversity of language, dress and food. It is this spirituo-cultural fabric that inspired and activated our people with unity, strength and cohesion in the struggle of independence.
Angiras, Uddalaka, Saunaka and the other sages feature in Vedic Upanishads, while sage Valmiki arrive in Treta yuga, with his alluring Ramayana, sung even today throughout the land.
Vyasadeva, however, stands with distinction in the great hierarchy of ascetics. Besides editing the immortal Vedas, he authored the incomparable epic Mahabharatam and allied texts. His aim was to delight the ordinary hearts and arouse in them an abiding interest in the eternal spiritual heritage. Sage Vyasa’s writings have ever since remained the backbone of Indian ethos.
Mahabharatam, with 125,000 Sanskrit Verses, constitutes the foundation of our composite culture and ethics. Portraying the decline of Kuru Dynasty, which once ruled this land, the epic depicts the benevolent and maleficent traits of the complex world, together with the benedictory and derogatory notes of the human mind the human race. It discusses the intriguing pursuit of human life, describing the confrontations and enigmas the individual and society alike, face from time to time. Bhagavadgeeta, a salient part of the Mahabharatam, is a celebrated gospel, crowning the variegated epic discussion. By dint of its magnificence and relevance to daily life, it has ever since been the boundless inspiration and refuge of our people. This great spiritual dialogue is adored the world over, for its distinct worth, relevance and pragmatism.
Vyasadeva, in Mahabharatam, presents Krishna as an enlightened person, with exquisite excellence in resolving the problems and needs of human life. But in Shreemad Bhaagavatam, the sage taking recourse to eulogistic attributes makes Krishna appeal to the erudite, ignorant, old and young alike. In it, one can clearly see a healthy message for the war-torn world laboring under its own misconceptions of what life is, and its own wrong evaluations of the factors that constitute true living.